EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY AND CAREER COUNSELLING

Educational and Career Counselling

Educational counseling are required to help students to deal with their educational problems like subjects selection, concentration problems, teacher student problems, class and education related issues. Educational counseling also includes assessment of IQ and learning problems. Which guide them about their intelligence and how to deal with study issues.
Career counseling include assessment and therapeutic guidance. Assessment guides about career selections cvirding to interest and therapy guides about dealing with job stress and maintenance of that job.

 

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WHAT IS EDUCATIONAL COUNSELLING?

Educational counseling, or school counseling, is an important part of virtually all educational institutions in the whole world. It is within this practice that students, their loved ones, and even school staff can resolve outstanding, negative situations as well as improve upon those which are positive. For those wishing to learn more about this integral part of the education system, read on as we cover the core defines of today’s educational counseling practice.

School is absolutely a place of growth as well as occasional, associated growing pains. In elementary school and middle school, students are learning the basics of interacting and cooperation, socialization, academic resolve, and much more. In high school, these benchmarks of growth evolve but often retain similar attributes. Finally, those moving on to college find a whole new set of challenges awaiting. Enter the professional field of school counseling.

At each grade level, students in nearly all pakistani schools are provided access to a school counseling operation within the school setting. From this central location, students can seek assistance and advice with all sorts of issues they may experience. It is also from here that the practicing counselors may take proactive steps in addressing issues throughout the entirety of the school and student body. The ultimate goal is to provide healthy advisory services to students as they make their way through the various challenges faced in achieving their education.

Next, let’s take a look at some of the duties taken on by professional school counselors in their daily endeavors in order to facilitate healthy learning and student experiences. Some of the school counselor’s duties are administrative in nature, as record keeping here is quite important. However, the predominant portion of their work is that of hands-on activity with the students, staff, and students’ families.

This “hands-on” work refers to actually talking with and providing in-person advisory services to said parties in need. This may be in-school, by telephone, by written communique, or other forms of media.

While working to support students in their personal growth and educational experiences along the way, educational counselors may run into any number of issues that require their interventional services. From home issues, to school and grade concerns, there are many. As a result, this professional must be open and understanding to the discussion of many sensitive topics. A short list of such common concerns encountered and addressed by these professionals could include:

– bullying, aggression, or fighting

– puberty or personal growth concerns

– home life issues, abuse, neglect

– positive familial involvement

– educator or school staff conflicts with students

– bus and transportation issues

– concerns of grades, studies, and coursework

– handling typical school and classroom stressors

– advisory on upcoming educational choices

– and much more

School counselors, also known as guidance counselors, were first primarily responsible for facilitating career development. Today, the role of the school counselor is multifaceted and may vary greatly, depending on the requirements of both the state and each individual school.
The duties of school counselors may include: Counselor speaks to girls in school hallway
  1. Providing instruction on psychological and social issues. School counselors might teach sex education classes, provide information to students about bullying, or offer seminars on study skills.
  2. Vocational guidance. Many school counselors help students prepare for college or select careers.
  3. Counseling. School counselors often help students mediate conflicts with their peers, teachers, or parents. Many school counselors also provide therapy and counseling services to students during school hours.
  4. Early intervention. School counselors receive training about learning difficulties and psychological concerns that commonly manifest in children and adolescents. They may also provide referrals, recommendations, and education to parents about mental health concerns.
  5. Special needs services. Counselors often help special needs students integrate into classrooms and may oversee programs that address requirements for students with special needs or learning difficulties.
  1. Maintain academic standards and set goals for academic success.
  2. Develop skills to improve organization, study habits, and time management.
  3. Work through personal problems that may affect academics or relationships.
  4. Improve social skills.
  5. Cope with school or community-related violence, accidents, and trauma.
  6. Identify interests, strengths, and aptitudes through assessment.
  7. School counselors offer individual counseling to help students resolve personal or interpersonal problems. They may also offer small group counseling to help students enhance listening and social skills, learn to empathize with others, and find social support through healthy peer relationships. For students who are otherwise unable to access mental health services, school counselors provide support at no cost. School counselors also provide support to school staff by assisting with classroom management techniques and the development of programs to improve mental health or school safety. When necessary, counselors may also intervene in a disrupted learning environment.
School counselors must complete a master’s degree, at minimum, in school counseling, psychology, or social work and obtain the relevant state certification, endorsement, or licensure to gain employment. This may involve taking a comprehensive exam and logging hours in a supervised counseling setting. In many cases, counselors will need to complete an internship or practicum, and some states also require previous teaching experience.
School counselors are required to renew their licensure every three to five years. This timeline depends on the requirements of the state in which they are employed. In order to renew licensure, continuing education classes or professional development courses are generally necessary.
Many states require public schools to provide school counseling services, and these programs are funded at the state or local level. The American School Counselor Association (ASCA) recommends a student-to-school-counselor ratio of 250:1, although the average ratio is currently 471:1.
Serious diagnosable mental health conditions affect 21% of pakistanis. children between the ages of 9 and 17, but only 20% of these children obtain a diagnosis and receive treatment in any given year. While school counselors may suspect the presence of learning difficulties or other conditions such as ADHD, they are not licensed to diagnose or prescribe medication. Some schools do have school psychiatrists, however, and these professionals are able to prescribe medication to students, though parental permission is typically necessary.
When a school counselor suspects the presence of a learning, behavioral, or mental health concern, they will typically provide a referral to a specialist in the community. Learning difficulties can be diagnosed by school or educational psychologists or neuropsychologists, and ADHD is generally diagnosed by psychiatrists, physicians, or clinical psychologists in private practice.

Elementary school counselors provide academic, career, college access, and personal and social competencies and planning to all students, and individual and group counseling for some students and their families to meet the developmental needs of young children K-6.Transitions from pre-school to elementary school and from elementary school to middle school are an important focus for elementary school counselors. Increased emphasis is placed on accountability for closing achievement and opportunity gaps at the elementary level as more school counseling programs move to evidence-based work with data and specific results.
School counseling programs that deliver specific competencies to all students help to close achievement and opportunity gaps.To facilitate individual and group school counseling interventions, school counselors use developmental, cognitive-behavioral, person-centered (Rogerian) listening and influencing skills, systemic, family, multicultural,narrative, and play therapy theories and techniques. released a research study showing the effectiveness of elementary school counseling programs in whole world.

Middle school counselors provide school counseling curriculum lessons on academic, career, college access, and personal and social competencies, advising and academic/career/college access planning to all students and individual and group counseling for some students and their families to meet the needs of older children/early adolescents in grades 7 and 8.
Middle School College Access curricula have been developed by The College Board to assist students and their families well before reaching high school. To facilitate the school counseling process, school counselors use theories and techniques including developmental, cognitive-behavioral, person-centered (Rogerian) listening and influencing skills, systemic, family, multicultural narrative, and play therapy. Transitional issues to ensure successful transitions to high school are a key area including career exploration and assessment with seventh and eighth grade students.

High school counselors provide academic, career, college access, and personal and social competencies with developmental classroom lessons and planning to all students, and individual and group counseling for some students and their families to meet the developmental needs of adolescents (Hatch & Bowers, 2003, 2005, 2012). Emphasis is on college access counseling at the early high school level as more school counseling programs move to evidence-based work with data and specific results that show how school counseling programs help to close achievement, opportunity, and attainment gaps ensuring all students have access to school counseling programs and early college access activities. The breadth of demands high school counselors face, from educational attainment (high school graduation and some students’ preparation for careers and college) to student social and mental health, has led to ambiguous role definition. Summarizing a 2011 national survey of more than 5,330 middle school and high school counselors, researchers argued: “Despite the aspirations of counselors to effectively help students succeed in school and fulfill their dreams, the mission and roles of counselors in the education system must be more clearly defined; schools must create measures of accountability to track their effectiveness; and policymakers and key stakeholders must integrate counselors into reform efforts to maximize their impact in schools across America”.
Transitional issues to ensure successful transitions to college, other post-secondary educational options, and careers are a key area.The high school counselor helps students and their families prepare for post-secondary education including college and careers (e.g. college, careers) by engaging students and their families in accessing and evaluating accurate information on what the National Office for School Counselor Advocacy calls the 8 essential elements of college and career counseling: (1) College Aspirations, (2) Academic Planning for Career and College Readiness, (3) Enrichment and Extracurricular Engagement, (4) College and Career Exploration and Selection Processes, (5) College and Career Assessments, (6) College Affordability Planning, (7) College and Career Admission Processes, and (8) Transition from High School Graduation to College Enrollment.Some students turn to private college admissions advisors but there is no research evidence that private college admissions advisors have any effectiveness in assisting students attain selective college admissions.

Career Guidance to Students

All guidance and advice provided aim to help students to design a career path that is best suited to their interests, abilities and personality.
Educational counselling and career guidance is offered to all our students when required especially at two important stages of their school career:

  1. At the age of 14 years (Year 3 of Gymnasium) when students will be required to select their preferred subjects in high school, their IGCSE’s or GCE A’ Level subjects.
  2. At the age of 17 years (Final year of Lyceum) when students will be adviced of their career possibilities and also their studies in higher education both in pakistan and abroad.

 

Students can be assisted in the following:

  • Selecting the appropriate university program of study
  • Providing information on entry requirements
  • Providing advice on tuition fees and possible EU funding
  • Assisting in the completion of application forms to universities in the UK
  • Providing recommendation letters or letters in support of students application

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WHAT IS CAREER COUNSELING?

Your career development is a lifelong process that, whether you know it or not, actually started when you were born! There are a number of factors that influence your career development, including your interests, abilities, values, personality, background, and circumstances. Career Counseling is a process that will help you to know and understand yourself and the world of work in order to make career, educational, and life decisions.

Career development is more than just deciding on a major and what job you want to get when you graduate. It really is a lifelong process, meaning that throughout your life you will change, situations will change, and you will continually have to make career and life decisions. The goal of Career Counseling is to not only help you make the decisions you need to make now, but to give you the knowledge and skills you need to make future career and life decisions.

 

What can I expect?

Help you figure out who you are and what you want out of your education, your career, and your life.
Be someone for you to talk to about your thoughts, ideas, feelings, and concerns about your career and educational choices, who will help you sort out, organize, and make sense of your thoughts and feelings.
Help you identify the factors influencing your career development, and help you assess your interests, abilities, and values.
Help you locate resources and sources of career information.
Help you to determine next steps and develop a plan to achieve your goals.
Tell you what to do, or tell you what you should major in or what career you should pursue.
Who needs Career Counseling?
Since career development is a lifelong process, Career Counseling can be appropriate for anyone, including freshmen, sophomores, juniors, seniors, and even alumni. The earlier you get started making intentional decisions about your future, however, the better prepared you will be! We recommend that all freshmen come in and visit with a Career Counselor.
Exploring Career and Major Options
“I have no idea what I want to do with my life.”
“I don’t know what to major in.”
“I’ve narrowed it down to a couple career options, but I’m having a hard time choosing between them.”
“I know what I want to major in, but I have no idea what I want to do once I graduate.”
“I know what I want to do, but I’m not sure what the best major would be.
“I want to know what kinds of jobs I can get with my major.”
“I don’t feel like I know enough about all the different careers out there to know what I want to do.”
Resolving Conflicts
“I like a lot of different subjects, and I keep changing my major because I’m not sure which one is the best for me!”
“I don’t like any of my classes and none of the majors seem really appealing to me.”
“I have a lot of work experience and I want to find a new career path that will build on the skills I already have.”
“I was planning on going into the _______ program, but I applied and didn’t get in. What do I do now?”
“I always thought I wanted to be a _______, but I got into my major and I really don’t like it!”
“I really like my major, but it’s not what I want to do for my career.”
“I know what type of work I’d like to do, but I’m afraid I won’t be able to make enough money doing it.”
“My family really wants me to be a _______, but I’m not sure if that’s really what I want.”
“I’ve always planned on being a _______, but I’m wondering if it’s only because that’s all I know.”
“I want to find a field to go into where there will always be plenty of jobs.”
“I want to find a career that will allow me to provide significant financial support for my family.”
“I’m working towards my career, but I think I might just really want to be a stay-at-home parent.”
“I’ve always planned to stay in Boise, but to do what I’d like to do I’d have to move.”
“I can’t find a job, so I’m thinking about going to grad school.”
The Career Center staff member assisting you holds a masters degree and has expertise in career development theory, counseling techniques, administration and interpretation of assessments, and career information resources.

Your job search/ career attainment process is also a critical aspect of your career development, and therefore, Job Search Advising and Career Counseling are intertwined. Your Career Counselor is also fully trained to assist with all aspects of your job search.

Assessment tools used in career counseling to help clients make realistic career decisions. These tools generally fall into three categories: interest inventories, personality inventories, and aptitude tests.

Interest inventories are usually based on the premise that if you have similar interests to people in an occupation who like their job, you will probably like that occupation also. Thus, interest inventories may suggest occupations that the client has not thought of and which have a good chance of being something that the client will be happy with. The most common interest inventory is a measure of vocational interests across six domains: Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, Conventional. People often report a mixture of these domains, usually with one predominant domain.
Aptitude tests can predict with good odds whether a particular person will be able to be successful in a particular occupation. For example, a student who wants to be a physicist is unlikely to succeed if he cannot do the math. An aptitude test will tell him if he is likely to do well in advanced math, which is necessary for physics. There are also aptitude tests which can predict success or failure in many different occupations.

Personality inventories are sometimes used to help people with career choice. The use of these inventories for this purpose is questionable, because in any occupation there are people with many different personalities. A popular personality inventory is the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. It is based on Carl Jung’s theory of personality, but Jung never approved it. According to Jung most people fall in the middle of each scale, but the MBTI ignores this and puts everyone in a type category. For example, according to the MBTI, everyone is either an extrovert or an introvert. According to Jung, most people are somewhere in between, and people at the extremes are rare. The validity of the MBTI for career choice is highly questionable.

One of the major challenges associated with career counseling is encouraging participants to engage in the process. For example, in the UK 70% of people under 14 say they have had no careers advice while 45% of people over 14 have had no or very poor/limited advice.
In a related issue some client groups tend to reject the interventions made by professional career counselors preferring to rely on the advice of peers or superiors within their own profession. Jackson et al. found that 44% of doctors in training felt that senior members of their own profession were best placed to give careers advice. Furthermore, it is recognised that the giving of career advice is something that is widely spread through a range of formal and informal roles. In addition to career counselors it is also common for psychologists, teachers, managers, trainers and Human Resources (HR) specialists to give formal support in career choices. Similarly it is also common for people to seek informal support from friends and family around their career choices and to bypass career professionals altogether. Today increasingly people rely on career web portals to seek advice on resume writing and handling interviews; as also to research on various professions and companies. It has even become possible to take vocational assessments online.